Margaret Heffernan: Dare to Disagree

Most people instinctively avoid conflict, but as Margaret Heffernan shows us, good disagreement is central to progress. She illustrates (sometimes counterintuitively) how the best partners aren’t those who just follow like sheep and are happy to agree regardless. Also how great research teams, relationships and businesses allow people to deeply disagree. While a lot of people would agree with this it isnt always put in to practice which can and is detrimental. Part of the problem was that it takes time to transform perception, even if data shows that something is incorrect it isnt always that simple. We not only need to Dare to disagree, but also dare to believe in an alternative view or belief based on data and new information. We must ourselves be open to changing our own views or consider other possibilities.

Link: Margaret Heffernan: Dare to Disagree

The interplay between individual and collective knowledge: technologies for organisational learning and knowledge building

The article further builds on what has been outlined in other studies but in relation to specific technologies. Social-tagging systems, pattern-based task-management systems, and wikis are all looked at in terms of how they can be used to build knowledge via collaboration. They are discussed in terms of the model that is presented which brings together Nonaka’s knowledge-creating theory and Luhmann’s systems theory. The authors argue that knowledge is built as a co-evolution of cognitive and social systems. By examining the methods listed above this idea is explored further with examples used to identify suitability depending on specific incidents. It takes it further and examines how individuals use previous knowledge and how organisations use it when addressing these technologies. A certain type of software that is useful for knowledge building will depend on its ability to cause cognitive conflicts. What is interesting in this article is the fact that not all technology will have a positive impact and that some technology will have a greater impact than others. Other articles tended to look at the bigger picture. This article in particularly useful for further defining aspects that other articles hit upon but don’t explore deeper such as the Networks, Digital Libraries and Knowledge Management article.

Kimmerle, J., Cress, U,. Held, C. (2010) “The interplay between individual and collective knowledge: technologies for organisational learning and knowledge building” (Electronic Version) Knowledge Management Research & Practice, Vol. 8, Issue: 1, pp. 33-44.

Knowledge management as a mechanism for technological and organizational change management in Israeli universities

This journal article looks at the impact that technology has had on higher education on two fronts, firstly how it is the main cause of change and in turn how it is the main tool for dealing with change. In order to deal with this change, knowledge management is looked at as a possible way of fully utilising technology in the education sector. In order for universities to fully incorporate an ever changing digital world it needs clear guidance so that organizational and inter-organizational processes for managing innovation and change in the long run have a stable foundation. Thereby shaping the university into an organization that learns and manages knowledge. An interesting topic that is brought up is that of “Communities of practice” and how they are an integral part of KM. The journal provides a framework of extensive research detailing potential models in an effort to create a suitable model for universities. By looking at a system which is alternative to a business or non-profit organisation this study provides a different prospective but reaches many of the same conclusions. By doing so it strengthens the importance of knowledge management in the digital age. This study highlights the importance of sharing information when striving to improve what has gone before it.

Shoham, S., Perry, M. (2009) “Knowledge management as a mechanism for technological and organizational change management in Israeli universities.” (Electronic Version) Higher Education, Vol. 57 Issue: 2, pp. 227-246.

Michael Hyatt: International Leadership Selected Blogs

A Tale of Two Coaches: What Kind Are You?
I really enjoyed this blog post with the simple message being its not what you know but how you express it. There are people with vast amounts of knowledge on a topic but no knowledge on how to go about sharing that. Man management is a skill I would love to develop as I think it is vital to be successful. The best managers can always get the best results out of whoever is around them. This ties in to my literature review where I discovered some really interesting results concerning the type of leader you are.

The One Thing You Must Do to Achieve Break-Through Results
This blog post resonated with me as it deals with invisible barriers. Quite often people over think and find themselves stuck because what they perceive to be the problem is something they have manufactured in their heads. I have found myself daunted by upcoming presentations where I thought what I had done wasn’t good enough and it was all going to come crumbling down once I stood up to talk,only to receive high praise and realise I had manufactured this self doubt. If you can remove these invisible barriers and actually reassess the situation quite often the task at hand is manageable and you can move forward.

Environmental Scan

Introduction

“Information professionals are designers. We build information systems, services, spaces, and objects that we hope will help users find, use, create, and share information.” Bowler et al. (2011, p.723)

It is important to understand a systems users’ information behaviour when designing usable systems. User centred design is one such technique that incorporates the potential user in the design process. One such approach is to incorporate social bookmarking/tagging. The ultimate goal is to have a retrieval system that adapts to user behaviour rather than expecting the user to adapt to the system. Social tagging has two broad implications for user-centred design: it provides users with a flexible and personalized organization/access tool and it offers a venue for collecting empirical data on how users categorize and name information resources.

Common Themes

For a digital Library to be effective it has to be user friendly and easy to use. A well designed retrieval system that incorporates some common standards should be able to achieve this.

•Social Tagging and Digital Library Collections
Bookmarking.Net via Facebook outlined that in order to instruct Google what to display, you need to specify Google-compatible Meta tags, and update your HTML schema. This can be applied to any platform.

•Social Tagging as a Flexible Mechanism for Organizing Information for Users
As a result of a community tagging resources, the collection of tags defined by them creates a tag-based organization which can be referred to as a folksonomy. A folksonomy is basically known as weighted set of tags, and may refer to a whole collection/site. Blog post by arkaitz on http://blog.zubiaga.org/

•Social Tagging as a Way to Understand Users
When it comes to annotation tools not only can users add comments and highlighting to articles and eBooks, but they can then log-in to their account and pull off all of these notes into one central document. The device can also be used to see which sections of text other users are focusing on. BMJ Group Blogs.

Challenges & Barriers

As with any design process there are always hurdles to overcome. Designing a retrieval system has always been an area of considerable difficulty. The interpretation of tagging between humans and machines may create new problems if essential questions about how social tagging corresponds to online communications, what objects the tags refer to, who the interpreters are, and why they are engaged are not explored systematically.

•A common problem with tagging is that words such as web are overused and therefore become both pointless and lost in a sea of countless search returns. Likewise specific tags like acronyms may only make sense or can even be interpreted differently, among their particular communities of users. Thirdly polysemy is a term has two or more similar meanings

•Confusion in social tagging occurs due to the interpretations of what tags are meant to represent. The difficulty lies in the interpretation between the technical and social dimensions. “Tags, as a form of descriptive and visible metadata need a conceptual framework so that they can be constructed, presented, and processed systematically” Huang, A. W. C., & Chuang, T. R. (2009, p.347).

•Another issue is that many social tagging systems come with a function that provides users with tags supplied by other users to suggest a tag for the resource. This in turn restricts the user in their ability to describe the resource uniquely or even at all differently. This defeats the purpose of the tagging system.

Reoccurring in Online Discussions

Attaining Best Results

Several themes were ever present throughout the environmental scan that would be of relevance to a digital library. Firstly social bookmarking is seen by many as a tool to expand yourself, your business or even a digital library and as such there are many organisations vying for people to use their tools in order to benefit from using social bookmarking effectively. With Twitters hash tag function it is easy to follow what tweets have tagged social book marking.

Daily Ponder wrote on April 6th wrote:

“The Advantages of Search Engine Submission http://freesearchenginesubmit.org #Socialbookmarking”

SanFranciscoMobile ‏wrote on the March 31st:

“#SocialBookmarking is hot! Watch these videos and learn how to master #Social Book Marking! http://bit.ly/XTc3fT”
Throughout blogs and discussions people are championing different sites that cater for peoples information needs in the best possible manner. “erikchoi” posted on infoseeking.org on the April 14th:
“Pinterest is a sort of newer version of image bookmarking system in which people are allowed to create and manage images based on his/her personal interests.”

Information Behaviour

One of the main difficulties is to understand the intuition behind how people carry out searches so that you know what tags will gain you most exposure. Joanne Ptolomey wrote on her twitter:

“Exploring social tagging in relation to curating health information. Looking for examples.”

With the general consensus being whatever seems the most logical fit. The socialmaximiser blog states you should not use automated tools which do not care a thing for quality. Social bookmarking is effective only if you submit to most relevant categories, using proper tags, titles and descriptions. This underlies the importance to give careful consideration as to what tags to use and to try and think what other people will search for.

Available Software

There is clearly money to be made from perfecting the perfect tool that returns the best search results. Tools seek to make content more accessible, practical and valuable through an automated generation of semantic metadata, the incorporation of user-defined metadata and to incorporate the capabilities of user-contributed tags. However this is an extremely difficult practice, as is shown in the next two examples. Chrisjhorn wrote on his blog March 2nd:

“OpenCalais’s behaviour is clearly unstable and unpredictable. I’ve little doubt that OpenCalais will continue to improve: as I noted above, it is already a very good tool, albeit at this time largely limited to the English language.”

Another possible software choice is Sophia which StevenArch explained:

“Sophia uses algorithms based on semiotics to identify and categorize documents. Per se, it does not have any knowledge about any specific natural language, and so instead analyses the patterns of words and constructs appearing in the documents which it is given.”

While there were many other areas discussed pertaining social tagging online, these were three that stood out and can be easily applicable to any digital library that wants to look at this issue. This tied in conjunction with the previous sections, common themes as well as challenges and barriers lays out a much clearer picture for the area of social tagging as a method of information retrieval.

Issues for a Digital Library

The overriding issue to incorporate this method is its overall functionality. Can digital libraries make it efficient and also a worthwhile endeavour? In terms of ARTstor there are certain issues that need to be given adequate attention if they were to incorporate social tagging in an information retrieval capacity. Firstly a key issue concerns the impact of social tags to the subject indexing process of an information organization. Who is going to oversee the implementation and monitor whether it is working or not, adjust it appropriately so the best results are achieved and importantly make sense of it all. These are all time consuming restraints that must be given careful consideration and the financial aspect must not be forgotten.

As Kakali and Papatheodorou (2010) outline that a relevant issue concerns the process of the social tags exploitation. It is crucial to come up with a system that takes in to consideration the frequency and the criteria of the tag assessment process. They continue to explain that one method to carry this out would be to refine the inserted tags by searching, in predefined time periods, and in turn to identify overlapping terms and keep in the folksonomy only the non-overlapping tags, while the overlapping to be inserted in the local authority file. This of course is not straight forward and issues potentially arising are extremely apparent to see especially when taking in to consideration that libraries have a limited number of personnel. One can imagine for example ArtSTOR which would need to incorporate this new system by having even more tags to be catalogued.

Kohl (2010) explains ARTstor has some noticeable weaknesses that include the inability of the user to browse by artist; the lack of suggestions for possible misspellings; and the lack of bibliographic resources for further research. On top of this, it would be beneficial if each classification in the Browse function was further subdivided by material. While most likely due to issues of copyright, the collection had limited coverage of modern and contemporary art. It is clear to see that this coupled with the fact there is a lack of image and subject descriptors that this could be improved with community social tagging.

As unearthed in the environmental scan the issue of users tagging in a manner that is useful can also be problematic. Kakali (2010) & Farooq et al. (2007) go in to some detail on this matter. One important component to social tagging being a successful tool is to incorporate a system that suggests tags by other users. One system suggested is CiteULike which combats this, it allows users when tagging items to conveniently select and reuse tags from their personal collections. Cataloguers have expressed their reservation about the tags being inserted by less qualified users such as undergraduate students and external users. It was stated that if faculty and post-graduate students tagged items a better end result would be achieved. Nevertheless a possibility is to buy LibraryThing’s tags or to encourage the users to enrich the local folksonomy.

Note: ARTstor received a three year grant by The Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) of $413,378 to support a project investigating and evaluating ways of improving library and museum searching and social tagging in 2011 and it will be interesting to see the results once available. The issues raised here will no doubt be considered carefully when trying to implement a successful system.

Bibliography

Academic Papers

1.Bowler, L., Koshman, S., Oh, J. S., He, D., Callery, B. G., Bowker, G., & Cox, R. J. (2011). Issues in user-centered design in LIS. [Electronic Version] Library Trends, 59 (4) 721-752.

2.Buchanan, G. & Masoodian, M. & Cunningham, S. J. (Eds.). (2008). Digital Libraries: Universal and Ubiquitous Access of Information. New York: Springer.

3.Farooq, U., Song, Y., Carroll, J. M., & Giles, C. L. (2007). Social bookmarking for scholarly digital libraries. [Electronic Version] Internet Computing, IEEE, 11(6), 29-35.

4.Huang, A. W. C., & Chuang, T. R. (2009). Social tagging, online communication, and Peircean semiotics: a conceptual framework. [Electronic Version] Journal of Information Science, 35 (3) 340-357.

5.Kakali, C. & Papatheodorou, C. (2010). Could Social Tags Enrich the Library Subject Index? In Libraries In the Digital Age, Zadar, Croatia, May 24-28, 2010. [Conference Paper]

6.Kohl, K. (2010) ARTstor: An Image-Oriented Digital Library. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation) Louisiana State University, Louisiana.

Blogs

1.Author N/A (2013, March 10). Social Maximiser: Professional Social Bookmarking Service. Retrieved from: http://blog.socialmaximizer.com/category/social-bookmarking.

2.Bower, C. (2013, January 13) Key trends in the information-seeking behaviour of researchers. BMJ Web Development Blog [Web log post] Retrieved from
http://blogs.bmj.com/bmj-journals-development-blog/2011/01/14/key-trends-in-the-information-seeking-behaviour-of-researchers.

3.Choi, E. (2013, March 3) erikchoi’s blog [Web log post] Retrieved from http://www.infoseeking.org/blog.

4.Corbett, J. (2013, March 22). How Social Bookmarking can lead to the Semantic Web [Web log post]. Retrieved from: http://eirepreneur.blogs.com/eirepreneur/2006/03/how_social_book.html.

5.Horn, C. 2013, April 10). Chrisjhorn’s blog: Musing on the Software Industry and Other Things [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://chrisjhorn.wordpress.com/2011/09/02/semantic-tagging-opencalais-and-sophia.

6.Hoyle, E. (2013, February 28). The Many Faces of Social Tagging. [Web log post]. Retrieved from: http://blog.viadeo.com/en/2011/09/28/the-many-faces-of-social-tagging.

Twitter

1.@alistapart (2013, April 10) Since 1998, the design magazine for people who make websites. [Twitter Page] Retrieved from https://twitter.com/alistapart.

2.@BookmarkingNet (2013, March 2) Social-Bookmarking.Net is a web 2.0 network where you can submit news, bookmarks, images, profiles, blogs and videos. [Twitter Page] Retrieved from https://twitter.com/BookmarkingNet.

3.@chibbie (2013, February 22) Exploring social tagging in relation to curating health information. Looking for examples. Pls RT. #hcsmeu #libraries #hcsmca #nhssm [Twitter Post] Retrieved from https://twitter.com/chibbie/status/263632957422571521.

4.@harrybr (2013, February 2) Is User-centered Design Broken – or is It Just Us? [Twitter Post] Retrieved from https://twitter.com/harrybr/status/298746718940442624.

5.#socialbookmarking (2013, March 14) [Twitter Search] Retrieved from https://twitter.com/search?q=%23socialbookmarking.

Websites

1.Author N/A (2013, March 2) Information Today, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.infotoday.com.

2.Social Bookmarking (2013, February 27) Social Bookmarking is a page provides you with the latest news and information about seo. [Facebook page] Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/websitesocialbookmarking?fref=ts.

Environmental Scan

For this artefact I have chosen a project I am currently finishing off at the moment. We were asked to carry out an Environmental Scan over a period of at least 5 weeks pertaining to issues a digital library could face. I really struggled with coming up with an idea due to this subject not being my favourite. My idea actually stemmed from a reading I did for this class concerning user centred design. The entire notion intrigues of including the user in the design process and just how often they are not. I decided to look at social tagging as an information retrieval system to be adapted by digital libraries and am really proud of my research on the topic.

The hardest part of this project was the research aspect. Usually I deal with journal articles but for this we had to maintain an active eye over the likes of forums and blog posts, twitter and Facebook. This wasn’t easy as you can imagine there are not that many people talking about the subject at hand. It really forced me to scavenge around and find snippets of info and follow leads and end up in places I never initially intended. I would say I’m very good in normal circumstances of putting together research for a paper but this was an entirely different approach. I didn’t have a clue really what went in to incorporating such a system at all and it’s all too easy to think if someone tags something it will be easier to find in a search. To understand this topic I had to go much deeper and beyond my comfort zone in to an entirely new area. The aspect of learning it from peoples opinions in real time was fascinating and in truth it gave me a far better understanding then I could ever have amalgamated from reading endless journal articles.

In order to move forward it would be silly to think this is the best approach because of course I read some articles and they hold so much knowledge that they are vital. Also a lot of projects don’t lend themselves to this approach but if I could even adapt parts of it I think future endeavours will reap the benefits. It is important to keep an open mind and know knowledge can lie anywhere you just have to dig and be willing to look in places you may have previously thought were not of any use.

Literature Review

The artefact I have chosen is my Literature Review I did in my research methods class on the topic of Leadership in Organisations & How it Impacts on Employee Performance. I had struggled for quite some time in selecting a topic that I thought was both interesting and would also fit a lit review so it is somewhat hard to backtrack and figure out where exactly I got this idea. It has aspects I had touched upon in different classes and its an area I wanted to understand further. The point of the assessment was to demonstrate an abiltiy to identify and assess the work already done on the topic.

Its a topic I probably first discovered in secondary school in business class and before starting the project I still maintained the same mindset that it was a very black and white topic. In my old business books it clearly separates managers into three separate styles (authentic, directive and transactional) and everyone adheres to one. What I found, which probably shouldn’t be a surprise was this isn’t the case. Managers tend to have a blend of all three and it depends on the environment that they are in which style will come more to the forefront. Managers in general weigh up their options and try to get the best from their employees by applying whatever methods they think will harness the best results. Of course there are managers who just fall into one of the three categories but that tends to not end well one way or another, whether that’s for an unsuccessful manager/organisation or if its an unhappy working environment and as an extension unhappy employees.

In terms of how this altered my mindset, It gave me a fresh perspective on how people act when in a managerial capacity. If I think back to any job I have had or even team I have played on it is interesting to look at from a different perspective. Also moving forward should I find myself in a managerial capacity I would like to believe that I will be far more aware of my environment in terms of how I act. This falls in line in what I have been learning about reflecting on different topics and how they can apply to my past but also what I’m currently doing and hope to do in the future.